Anemia in Animals

Anemia ( Greek word, An – without, emia – blood ) is a decrease in the RBC count
, hemoglobin and/or Haematocrit values resulting in a lower ability for the blood to carry
oxygen to body tissues.

Reduction in the amount of Hb per unit of blood & may or may not be accompanied by the
reduction in red blood cells.
● Anaemia is a major problem in both farm animals as well as pet animals.
● As it affects most of the farm animals Its indirectly responsible for GDP loss.
● Anaemia affects both adults and young, although pregnant animals and young ones are
most susceptible and most affected by this disease.
● It can be related to bad managemental practices.


Etiology:-


Only three causes of anemia exist:
● blood loss
● increased destruction of RBCs (hemolysis)
● decreased production of RBCs.
Each of these causes includes several disorders that require specific and appropriate
therapy.


PATHOGENESIS:-


The exact pathogenesis of anemia is diverse with each disease referred to in the etiology
. The net effect of acute anemia is the loss of total oxygen-carrying capacity of blood and tissue
anoxia, resulting in depression of various body functions and peripheral circulatory failure. In
sub – acute cases, the cardiac output is reduced so the heart rate and stroke
volume increase. In chronic anemia, the effects are slow and subclinical.


CLINICAL FINDING:-


● PALENESS OF ALL THE VISIBLE
● MUCOUS MEMBRANE
● MUSCULAR WEAKNESS, DULL AND DEPRESSED.
● INAPPETANCE TO ANOREXIA.
● TACHYCARDIA.
● SIGNS OF SHOCK IN
● HAEMORRHAGIC ANEMIA.
● OTHER SIGNS ARE :
JAUNDICE, HAEMOGLOBINURIA , HEATURIA, AND OEDEMA


Diagnosis:-


The first step in diagnosing anemia is to determine the packed cell volume or PCV.
This test involves spinning down a small blood sample in a centrifuge to determine what
percentage of the overall blood volume is made up of red blood cells. Further blood testing can
provide evidence of regeneration in the red blood cells, abnormalities in other blood cell types such
as white blood cells and platelets, and evidence of organ damage such as chronic kidney disease,
or infectious diseases.
Other tests, such as radiographs (x-rays) or an ultrasound to look for causes of bleeding or a
bone marrow biopsy may be recommended by a veterinarian,


TREATMENT:-


● Attempt should be made to correct the primary cause ( s ) with appropriate measures
● Whole blood transfusion is indicated in severe cases
● Instead of blood, a plasma extender may be used e.g. Haemacel Gelatin, Na, K, Cl )
Dose: 10-15 ml/kg body weight
● Haematinic preparations may be used in less severe cases and as supportive treatment
after transfusion.
● Iron administration by mouth or parenterally
● Preparation, if injected I / V, will give a rapid response I / V injection of organic iron
preparations.will give a rapid but not a prolonged result.


PREVENTION:-


Whenever possible, take measures to prevent anemia by preventing the conditions that
cause it. Keep substances that are toxic to animals (such as human food and
medications) far away from your curious pup, and provide him with a healthy diet. These
actions may help prevent your animal from developing anemia.

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