Trypanosomiasis, also known as “sleeping sickness” or “the disease,” is a parasitic disease that affects humans and animals. In veterinary medicine, trypanosomiasis refers to an infection in animals caused mainly by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma.

Transmission of Trypanosomiasis:

The disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are the main vector for the transmission of trypanosomes between animals. There are several types of trypanosomes that can infect animals, including cattle, horses, camels, pigs, dogs, and other wildlife.


Symptoms of Trypanosomiasis:

Once trypanosomes enter the animal’s bloodstream, they multiply and spread throughout the body. The parasite can cause a variety of clinical symptoms depending on the trypanosome species and the affected animal. Common symptoms of animal trypanosomiasis include fever, weakness, emaciation, anemia, swollen lymph nodes, and neurological disorders.

Trypanosomiasis can have important economic consequences in animal production. Premature animals often suffer from reduced performance, such as wasting, reduced milk production, and reduced fertility. In severe cases, the disease can be fatal.


Diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in animals usually involves examining blood samples under a microscope to detect the presence of trypanosomes. Additional diagnostic tests can be used to confirm infection and identify specific trypanosome species.

In veterinary medicine, treatment for trypanosomiasis often involves the administration of drugs known as trypanocides to remove the parasite from the animal’s body. However, treatment options may vary depending on the type of trypanosome and the affected animal. It should be noted that drug resistance can be a problem and preventive measures are needed, such as controlling the tsetse fly population and implementing strict biosphere measures to prevent the disease.

In areas where trypanosomiasis is endemic, control programs can be established to prevent and control the spread of the disease in animals. These programs often include vector control, animal control, and strategic treatment approaches.

In general, trypanosomiasis is an important veterinary problem affecting both domestic and wild animals in areas where tsetse flies occur. Effective prevention, early detection and appropriate treatment are very important to reduce the impact of this parasitic disease on animal health and production.


Types of Trypanosomiases:  

  1. Bovine Trypanosomiasis (Nagana)

 Signs and symptoms:

Fever: Infected animals usually have body temperature.  Diabetes: Trypanosomiasis causes destruction of red blood cells, resulting in red blood and pale sputum.  Weight loss: Loss of body weight due to loss of appetite in animals.  Asthenia: Weakness and fatigue are common.Fertility issues: Affected women may experience miscarriages, miscarriages, and lack of milk.  Lymphadenopathy: Swollen lymph nodes are seen.


Treatment of Bovine Trypanosomiasis:

Use of specific drugs such as suramin, uminal or merazin.  May require supportive care, including blood transfusions and nutritional support.Anemia: Damage to red blood cells causes red blood and pale mucous membranes.  Weight Loss: Horses with this problem lose weight and muscle mass.  IT: Could be.  Neurological symptoms: In severe cases, neurological symptoms such as confusion and paralysis may occur.

Give trypanosome-specific drugs such as sdimethylamine or pentamidine.  Support may be required, including water filtration and food support.  Close monitoring of neurological symptoms is important.

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2.Canine trypanosomiasis

 Signs and symptoms of Canine trypanosomiasis:

Fever: Injured dogs often have a fever.  Lethargy: The dog may appear weak, tired and inactive.  missing: The injured dog  lost its appetite and  lost weight.  Heart abnormalities: Trypanosoma cruzi affects the heart, causing heart problems.  Organ Damage: Chronic disease can cause damage to many organs, including the liver and spleen.


Treatment of Canine trypanosomiasis:

Anti-parasitic drugs such as benzimidazole or nifurolimus.  Provides support for symptom management of heart and body injuries.  Prevention through line control and blood donation screening is important.


3.Surra (Surra trypanosomiasis) 

 Signs and symptoms of surra:

Fever: Injured animals often have a fever.  Asthenia (weakness): Weakness, malaise and malaise are the same thing.  Anemia: Destruction of erythrocytes causes pallor of erythrocytes and mucous membranes.  Weight loss: Affected animals may experience weight loss and muscle wasting.  Swelling: Edema (fluid) may develop in the extremities, abdomen and other parts of the body.Symptoms and response to treatment should be closely monitored.

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4.Dourin (Dourine Trypanosomiasis):


Signs and Symptoms of Dourin:

Genital Diseases: Diseases of animals, especially horses, that cause swelling, protrusion and pain in the genital area.  Internal Involvement: Neurological symptoms such as confusion, paralysis, and movement disorders may occur. Weight Loss: Infected animals may experience weight loss and poor health.  Fever: May be irregular or sometimes feverish.  Reproductive Disorders: Dourin causes infertility, miscarriage and decreased libido in animals.


There is no effective treatment for uremia.Infected animals are usually isolated and quarantined to prevent transmission.  An administrative system designed to strictly control, inspect and remove animals.  It is important to note that both surra and dourin have a significant impact on animal health and welfare. These diseases affect animal production and trade. Preventive measures, including vector control and regular animal inspections, are important to prevent the spread of this disease.


Trypanosomiasis is a serious disease caused by the trypanosome virus. Bovine trypanosomiasis, equine trypanosomiasis, and canine trypanosomiasis are different types of diseases, each with different signs, symptoms, and treatment. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment and supportive care are the keys to controlling this disease. The use of preventive measures and research efforts are important for animal control and prevention of trypanosomiasis

9 thoughts on “Trypanosomiasis”

  1. It is very clearly Explained and very easy to understand and very informative for Veterinary Doctor’s.

  2. Thank you dear sir for providing us, such a precious material, very much supportive material❣️❣️


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